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Acronym References

AVF
What is AVF ?
Arterio Venous Fistula
Fistula, arterial venous to communicate abnormal or the communication channel between an artery and a vein called. Fistula, arterial venous somehow and link between a Red Vein and a vein. This problem is sometimes congenital or caused by trauma, and , but sometimes, for medical reasons deliberately created.

fistula, arterial venous cause going up of blood flow within the black vessel, and in the process of hemodialysis, blood more without passing from the capillaries to the passage of the machine dialysis provides.

in the fistula can be with the touch of the vein (such as taking pulse radial) pulsation arterial easily feel that in medicine, to which the Blazers said to be, and also by stethoscope (stethoscope) the sound of blood heard that in the medical report Baraut name to him. In the creation of a fistula on the forearm, over more vein pottery to the arteries, the radio, or the arteries , etc. anastomosis. After surgery and creation of a fistula should be a few weeks wait), so-called fistula is mature and ready to be used.

the treatment of fistula depends on the location of the Create and also reason for creating it is associated, but mainly the need for surgery will be....
RVF
What is RVF ?
Recto Vaginal Fistula
Fistula or fistula, rectum - vaginal disease in which the fistula or the communication abnormal between the rectum and vagina, to be there.

fistula, rectum-vaginal sex can make a person powerless. The extensiveness of this conduit is when The between the rectum and vagina be created, in which case the person will allow to inflate the abdomen and the stool out of the way, disposed that the process leading to incontinence fecal.
there is a direct correlation between frequent urination and infections, vaginal there. This type of fistula can be due to lack of diagnosis, pediatricians, anomalies,.
the severity of the symptoms to the size of the conduit depends on.

fistula typically the result of trauma during childbirth (cause of the IT fistula, post-partum) in the absence of a stay living in developing countries, which have been in the IT, health care, inappropriate conduct takes place.
fistula can address from various diseases, including infection by Hodgkin's disease or an unwanted result from surgery stay surgery aspirin-sensitive among or surgical sex change have been, or may be as a complication of surgery, a hysterectomy.

overall, the treatment of fistula, rectum-vaginal, divided into two categories: first, those that need surgery to relieve of complication. Second, those that have with radiotherapy in this malignancy pelvic can be they emerge.

infrequently colostomy, perverted (in the categories prime) for this benign disease is required....
BGL
What is BGL ?
Blood Glucose Level
Blood glucose (BGL), the size of the glucose available in the blood, human or animal. The human body is capable, through the action of homeostasis the amount of blood sugar control.

blood sugar in the standard global measurement, of. concentration, molar is for mmol / L), are reported in the United States, with the scale of the crime that mg dL is offered.

reduce blood sugar from the standard conventional (depending on sex and age is different), etc. causes disease, hypoglycemia (). The rise in blood sugar from the standard conventional also cause disease () suggest that the acute type of it, Diabetes is called.

fasting blood sugar levels normal for a person's natural non-diabetic in about 70 to 100 mg per DL. (3/9, 5/5 mmol per liter),

the values of blood sugar, optimal for people with diabetes are as follows:

- fasting blood sugar: 70 to 130 mg per DL (3/9, 7/2 mmol per liter),

- The Blood Sugar after a meal: less than 180 mg per DL (10 mmol per liter),

- blood sugar 2 hours after meals: less than 140 mg per DL (7/8 mmol per liter),

blood sugar 2 hours after meal in normal person should be less than 120 mg per DL (6/6 mmol / L)). but desirable goal in diabetics is the blood sugar less than 140 mg per DL. (7/8 mmol per liter),

of course, to remember the values of the desirable aforementioned it is possible to all diabetics not hold true and may be clinical conditions, you to such that physician your optimal range blood sugar to make you so different with the values listed in the future; for example, people who suffer from low blood sugar unconscious will return and may require a higher blood sugar.

in diabetics, as the amount of high blood sugar can be harmful. a sudden drop and frequent blood sugar can also works unfavorably to the cell. therefore, in people who are treated with marked drop frequent blood sugar. the doctor can increase the amount of blood sugar higher in the future.

As mentioned, low blood sugar or hypoglycemia is one of the complications of diabetes is in the control of diabetes should pay attention to it. Hypoglycemia is decrease in blood sugar to less than 70 to 80 mg / dL and its symptoms include increased heartbeat, dizziness, heaviness of head, feeling disoriented and , etc., tremor, anxiety, sweating, drowsiness, feeling of weakness and hunger and disorder in talk.

may be the treating physician, your depending on the clinical conditions, you have a range of blood sugar specific for you to as blood sugar considers appropriate. therefore, note that control your blood sugar in order to prevent the occurrence of undesirable side effects of diabetes can be, and should not look obsessed species to it. But should your blood sugar, consult a physician specialist. in a proper range to maintain. It can also be the risk of low blood sugar immune stay....
CJD
What is CJD ?
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
Disease Jakob (CJD) or mad cow is a neurological disease and fatal analysis, winner of the brain in humans is in effect, the prion, can be created. This disease in the 1920's by two nerve gourmet German called Hans Gerhard and Alphonse Maria Jacob was described.

This disease, men and women in equal proportions, in about 60 years of age caught. Patients with psychiatric symptoms and behavioral vague, can be that after weeks and months, dementia, progressive can be ended, and often with movements of abnormal body, and impaired vision was associated.

now, this disease, the treatment is not allowed, and in less than a year from onset of symptoms to death can be ended. Sometimes patients more resistant for up to two years also survive. Dissecting these patients, create cavities in the brain spongy and it shows....
PD
What is PD ?
Parkinsons Disease
Parkinson's disease, or PD, for the first time by the British scientist Dr. James Parkinson (James Parkinson) in 1817 ad, was described, and so the name of this disease, to her belong.

This disease, the same shake in the rest condition is its prevalence, more in old age, but it is also seen in its prevalence in all regions of the world is the same, namely the percentage of outbreaks with the change in area is very different. Generally, this disease, the effect of cells secrete a substance called dopamine (a neurotransmitter) that occur. Increase the ratio of acetylcholine to dopamine in the gland, the base, the brain causes the symptoms of tremor, etc., stiffness of muscles and slowness of movements.

Parkinson's disease is based on two Mark four or more the main symptom of the disease is determined. Vibration and tremor of the hands and feet in a state of rest, slowness of movements, etc. hardness and drying of the hands and feet and body and not having the balance of the four main symptom make up.

in the early stages of the disease, etc. the vibration of the limbs, easy, and usually on one side of the body there is need also to treatment but as the disease progresses, the individual that shaky hand in his pocket or behind his hides or anything to control the vibration, constantly on hand. no longer able to hide the extreme vibration, the limbs, especially when you will focus more to your gives.

four common symptom of the disease, the vibration of the hands and feet at rest (tremor of the patient simultaneously with the vibration of the hands and feet at rest) quiet movement ( / Bradykinesia) difficulty moving (and dry) hands and feet, or body balance, bad (poor balance) While two or more of these symptoms in the patient to be seen, especially when in a side more than the other side emerges. Parkinson's diagnosis is given unless the symptoms of the other, simultaneously, there is another disease will appear. The patient may be in the early of. disease, with tremor of the hands and feet or poor movement feels and realize that it is doing anything more than usual takes, or because the hardness of drying and the movement of the hand and weakness of the balance of your experience. The first signs of Parkinson's, a different set of vibrations, etc. , etc. stiff muscles and poor balance. Usually the symptoms of Parkinson's, first on one side of the body emerge, and with the passage of time to the other side, too, find a way.

changes in face appearance and the face of the offers, including fixed (fixation) mode (apparently a little emotion on their face appear to be) or daze the eyes (due to decreased blinking). In addition, drying of the shoulder or feet on the side, under the influence of a million other complications (normal) of the disease. Older people may appear A to a the symptoms of Parkinson's disease to changes, increasing age, relevancy, position. vibration as "vibration" to him. to "quiet normal" and tighten the muscles to "arthritis" relevancy will lose. Mode hump (stooped) this disease is also a lot of those people to age or osteoporosis (osteoporosis) irrelevant. Both elderly patients and young patients May after more than a year that these side effects have faced for diagnosis to see a doctor....
SHOT
What is SHOT ?
Serious Hazards of Transfusion
Serious risks of blood transfusion...
SAD
What is SAD ?
Schizoaffective Disorder
Disorder (SAD) is a psychological disorder that, with the processes of thinking, abnormal feelings, no rule is determined. Diagnosis time given that the patient has features of both schizophrenia and a disorder of mood (bipolar disorder or disorder, and major depression) but the patient's symptoms with the diagnostic criteria detailed for each alone not matching. Kind of bipolar, symptoms Mania, Mania, mild or course, simultaneously be distinct. Type of depression with symptoms of depression, only characterized. Differentiate this disease with disorders like bipolar is that symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions in the absence of mood symptoms obvious at least two weeks must have persisted, then the diagnosis raised.

the symptoms of the common disorder includes illusions., delusions, ., the speech is disturbed and thinking is in disarray....
HB
What is HB ?
Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin is a protein that the task of carrying oxygen from the lungs to other organs of the body to make plays. Lack of it is a sign of anemia, and increasing it is an indication the concentration of the blood.


the causes of its decline:
anemia, lack of elements of iron or Copper, Copper, lack of vitamin 6, B 12, etc., folic acid, and vitamins.


the causes of its increase:
use of tobacco, air pollution and lack of oxygen, etc....
H1N1
What is H1N1 ?
Hemagglutinin type 1 Neuraminidase type 1
Swine flu respiratory disease of pigs that is influenza virus Type "A" material. Swine influenza virus (SIV) disease noted that there is by that can be created, among which the pigs are endemic.

swine flu is a viral disease that is usually the pig's suffering, but each year the items of the tribulation to the disease, especially from the way the call with this beast, etc. will be reported.

of this disease in humans through contact with the affected person also spread and does not sign its usual fever, dizziness, joint stiffness, nausea, vomiting, and in advanced cases, etc., unconsciousness, and death.

cases of human swine flu first, more people occurred, which in the distance not so far, near the pigs into overcrowded, but now the virus from human to human, the other is transmitted.

disease, swine flu of type H1N1, which is already there and is known and all decisions of the global influenza in the years 1918 and 1919, also due to the prevalence of this type of influenza. However, a recent survey shows that changes in the structure of the virus in the swine flu to come there. For this reason, from April 5, 2009 cases deaths from the disease in Mexico and the U.S. on alliance.

new type of flu that in 2009 in Mexico and the U.S. was discovered a combination of virus, swine flu, human, and acute birds.

before the outbreak of the swine flu in Mexico in 2009, cases of infection extensive animal and human to this disease in the US in 1976 and in the Philippines in 2007, it was reported.

the symptoms of swine flu among humans, influenza, human, namely fever, cough, sore throat, headaches, feeling cold and fatigue resembles. Some people also after getting affected by this disease suffer from diarrhea and vomiting.

According to the Bureau of health of the United States (CDC), the two drugs, Tamiflu and Relenza, which the medicines common to deal with the flu. to deal with all the species, the current swine flu is also effective....
LASIK
What is LASIK ?
Laser-Assisted Stromal In-situ Keratomileusis
Lasik (Lasik) is a type, of laser eye surgery is for the correction of refractive errors of the eye in people ... the camera and astigmatic used.

In this surgery. eye doctor to shape the cornea and correct diagnostic, refractive, similar, Lasek of excimer laser uses; and the use of the device and remove the top layer of the cornea. vision correction surface of the cornea is done. Often patients after surgery, until the end of life or years, does not require the use of glasses will not be found.

Dr. Gholamali treaty, the Iranian scientist a resident of the United States of America and members of the "Hall of Fame, world medicine" and ... the inventor of this surgical procedure. The minister of Health, the current, etc., Dr. Ghazizadeh Hashemi, etc. issues remain to LASIK eye surgery in the country. These practices are now spread a lot of Risen, and in 2011, over 11 million Lasik surgery in the U.S. is done.

This type of surgery may help, ... a little pain ... usually one or three days after the operation heals, and does not require bandages and stitches....
LASEK
What is LASEK ?
Laser Assisted Sub-Epithelial Keratectomy
or PRK or LASEK, somehow, laser eye surgery is for the correction of refractive errors in people ... the camera and astigmatic used. In this action to shape the cornea and correct diagnostic, refractive, similar to LASIK of the excimer laser used; but, unlike Lasik, does not require the use of the device and remove the top layer of the cornea. but also for vision correction surface of the cornea (after scraping the cells of the surface or epithelium) directly, the laser can be. PRK on people when the cornea is thin, or disorder, the cornea, another specific. is more appropriate. PRK in the people, army, etc. athletes, especially martial arts, and some other jobs more suitable. PRK in 1995 for the correction of myopia, and in 1998, to correct hyperopia approved by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) and was very low risk. Snuggly in the action layer (the flap) is removed is not complications related to the removal of the flap does not exist. In PRK, the removal of tissue from the center of the cornea. the slope of the curvature, it has less myopia can be corrected. To correct hyperopia, by removing the tissue from the part of the peripheral cornea., the slope of the curvature of the central, it is more and hyperopia can be corrected. To correct astigmatism, etc. of the cornea, so, given that the spherical shape turns....
PRK
What is PRK ?
PhotoRefractive Keratectomy
or PRK or LASEK, somehow, laser eye surgery is for the correction of refractive errors in people ... the camera and astigmatic used. In this action to shape the cornea and correct diagnostic, refractive, similar to LASIK of the excimer laser used; but, unlike Lasik, does not require the use of the device and remove the top layer of the cornea. but also for vision correction surface of the cornea (after scraping the cells of the surface or epithelium) directly, the laser can be. PRK on people when the cornea is thin, or disorder, the cornea, another specific. is more appropriate. Also PRK in people, army, etc. athletes, especially martial arts, and some other jobs more suitable. PRK in 1995 for the correction of myopia, and in 1998, to correct hyperopia approved by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) and was very low risk. Snuggly in the action layer (the flap) is removed is not complications related to the removal of the flap does not exist. In PRK, the removal of tissue from the center of the cornea. the slope of the curvature, it has less myopia can be corrected. To correct hyperopia, by removing the tissue from the part of the peripheral cornea., the slope of the curvature of the central, it is more and hyperopia can be corrected. To correct astigmatism, etc. of the cornea, so, given that the spherical shape turns.

part of the stages of laser surgery PRK is similar surgery LASIK. but the major difference is that in LASIK, after removing the layer of the cornea, with laser some tissue from the middle of the thickness of the cornea, shaved to be, but in the laser, PRK, laser energy on the surface of the cornea is applied.

prior to surgery. full medical examination and eye done. Refraction surveys accurate to determine the score, done. Map of Opotiki, a certain called "topographic" or "Tullahoma scan" is also to assess the situation, the optics of the cornea should be prepared. The thickness of the cornea is also a method called "pure metric" to be measured.

during surgery, with antiseptic (Betadine) of the eyelids and around the eyes and antiseptic. Drop, anesthesia, and antibiotics into the eye and poured the patient on the bed in front of the microscope long it takes.

by special to the name of the "speculum" gently in the eyes, can be laid up of the Open hold. so that you can't blink, but you can move your eyes. Eye with saline wash given. Layer of cells, the protective surface of the cornea is removed. Surgeon, you will have to light little red blinking inside the microscope, stare. If at all during the action, you are unable to visit the light stare, don't worry; The because most laser devices today equipped with radar, and may not move sadly, the eyes chase you. The surgeon with the use of the "excimer laser" myopia, far sightedness or astigmatism you make. Device excimer laser with the schedule calculated based on measurements before surgery. Tags light waves laser to distinct points of the cornea can shone, diagnostic, refractive eye you carefully corrected. Depending on the number eye, time laser per eye usually 1-2 minutes it takes. Then contact lens soft dressing, the cornea can be laid, until the restoration of the surface layer of the cornea be expedited. In the end, a speculum of the eye is removed and the technician operating room a Drops, antibiotics, other per eye you down.

a few hours after the procedure eyes pain and irritation will be. The next day the direction of the examination and the control to see the doctor. The first few days after surgery may feel a foreign body in the eye of the mind, which is normal. After a day of practice, your eyesight significant improvement will miniatu .. but to get to see the final few weeks time necessary. so, restoration of the operation site, and complete should wait a while. Early after surgery might eyes sensitive to light or not light the lights on the night of the broadcast, that this disposition gradually better. therefore, during the first few weeks after the operation, in an outdoor setting, from sunglasses to use.

in the United States of PRK for the treatment of from 1 - to 7 - verified. Nowadays, due to complications, PRK most eye doctors tendency of re to this practice have found; so that, in equal conditions surgery PRK prefer. In people who the thickness of cornea. individuals, athletes, and the army, PRK is more appropriate.

the benefits of surgery PRK:
for myopia, far sightedness, and astigmatism low to moderate is more appropriate.
during the practice time compared to LASIK shorter.
complications related to the creation of pants, such as: the incidence of inflammation, depth of the cornea (DLK), the wrinkles, the flap, separate full flap, etc. cutting an incomplete flap, and... does not exist.
to and technology relevant not need.
in the cornea, thin.
in the people, army and athletes, is more appropriate.


disadvantages of PRK:

pain and discomfort after the surgery, more and longer.
recovery time and duration time of need to the drug is longer.
in high numbers may cause opacity of the cornea....
MPV
What is MPV ?
Mean Platelet Volume
The average volume of the platelet (MPV) in the blood is between 7.5 to 11.5 well.

in testing, blood tests, etc., the average size of the platelets determine. The high index of the MPV means that platelets are bigger than and this can make a person at risk of heart attacks.

low MPV mean being smaller platelets free and in these conditions, the person prone to bleeding will be....
PDW
What is PDW ?
Platelet Distribution Width
PDW in blood test indicates the distribution range of the platelets. Indicators of platelet markers potentially useful for early detection of disease, .
it is predicted that the increase in the average platelet volume (MPV) and the width of the distribution of platelet (PDW) due to the activation of the platelet resulting from the swelling of the platelet and the formation of .

platelets play a very important role in our body that are preventing it from bleeding. The platelets in the growth and evolution of, create or destroy cancer cells, and factor in growth derived from platelets (PDGF) is also involved....
MMR
What is MMR ?
Mumps, Measles, Rubella
The trivalent vaccine, epilepsy, etc. measles, ...
TG
What is TG ?
TriGlyceride
Triglyceride (TG), a typical lipid, which is in the human body plays an important role.

in the fatty tissues the body, triglycerides, the role of insulation and save energy.

triglyceride from a glycerol and three fatty acid is composed.

triglyceride or Terry glycerol of the composition, an alcohol, called glycerol and three fatty acid is created. Abbreviated name it T. G. .T.G form an important part of the energy storage is compared to sugars, the amount of energy impacted more. Also this molecule in terms of chemical, molecular, inert (inert), and is quirks hydrophobicity, it also funds it compared to carbohydrates. Triglycerides, the main component of lipoproteins, with low density, very low (VLDL) and (CHY)....
PE
What is PE ?
Pulmonary Embolism
Embolism lung (PE), there is a blood clot or sometimes a fat in one of the arteries of the lung or tissues, six are said to be. This is a blood clot in one of the veins, and proprioception of the lower limbs or pelvis are formed. Embolism more fat from the area, a fracture of the bony base planning. A blood clot or embolism fat from the way of the blood stream and traverse through the heart of one of the arteries tissue six way finding, and there settled. This phenomenon caused a closure of the arteries, and so the ability of the respiratory system is reduced, and sometimes lung tissue from among the GOES. Embolism of the lungs in all age can be occur, but in adults more common....
HBSAG
What is HBSAG ?
Hepatitis B Surface AntiGen
Hepatitis B or hepatitis B, some sort of disease, infectious, viral humans is the hepatitis virus (HBV, a friend, he), it is operating. The most damage this disease is noticed the liver, the patient. The virus of this disease can cause both, acute or chronic. Hepatitis B is one of the most serious types of hepatitis, causes. In many patients, at the beginning of the contamination and infection, initial trace of the disease symptoms cannot be seen. In some start and rapid development of the disease, with vomiting, yellowing of the skin, fatigue, dark urine and abdominal pain along. These signs are often one or two weeks after the find, and rarely comes to that, the initial infection causes the death of the patient. The beginning of the occurrence of symptoms of the disease may take 30 to 180 days to the last. Among those at birth, this pollution will experience approximately 90% of hepatitis B, it is chronic, while less than 10% of patients who, after five years of age become infected, hepatitis B, the chronic would be. More those who have the disease to have chronic no signs of the disease do not show. however, in the end, this pollution can be affected with disease, cirrhosis, cancer, liver (Hepatocellular carcinoma) help, and it's more complex. In effect, this complex, statistics of death in its wake disease, 15 to 25 percent more than others.

the transmission of this virus by exposure to blood or fluids, biologically contaminated body of an infested person. In areas where the disease is rampant and canvas birth. this transition at the time of birth or the way of contact with blood of other people in childhood, the most common way of transmission of hepatitis B is. In areas where this rare disease. the most common manner of release of the infection from path users intravenous injection of drugs, and sexual intercourse.

cover the hepatitis B virus consists of three polypeptide for investigation, is that protein, the main Small (S), Middle (M) and Large (L), creates and, respectively, by Sequence, Gene S, Pre-S1 and Pre-S2 coding. Polypeptide s has a molecular weight of 24 kilo Daltons 226 , etc. by the S surface antigen of the virus coded can be called protein is the main (Major)can be read in ... that includes , Saab common, etc. (a) and (d/y , w/r). Based on the variables biochemical and genetic observed in the HBsAg isolated from different strains of HBV, the virus to and different classified....
UMN
What is UMN ?
Upper Motor Neuron
Upper motor neuron (UMN) those neurons that path, they of the brain to the core motor brain stem, or brain neurons, horns, the former the spinal cord to be pulled, etc. applicable.

two main ways of UMN include:

the way of the pyramid or the cortical spinal
the cortical medulla or the way cortical bulbous
the way of the pyramid (Pyramidal Tract), which is the same way can be from the cerebral cortex, starts, and bumps, the pyramid in the medulla oblongata. The majority of fibers, the way the pyramid in the region between the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord to the opposite side of the body can process.

the way of the pyramid, the more the motor neurons, the former (Anterior Motor Neurons) and neurons mediating(Interneurons) in spinal cord termination.

motor neurons former the spinal cord itself, the two types are:

motor neuron Alpha
motor neuron gamma
alpha motor neurons to fibers outside Duki muscle process and so in practice the contraction of skeletal muscles play a role. Gamma motor neurons fibers inside the spindle, the muscle's nerve update. Alpha motor neurons and gamma motor neurons, which in the blade, the ninth of the spinal cord have been influenced by the ways of descending....