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Acronym References

ALU
What is ALU ?
Arithmetic & Logic Unit
The unit of calculation and logic (ALU), etc. orbital digital is that the calculus of operations, and logic do. A fundamental piece of the central processing unit in the computer. And even the most simple also has a unit of calculation and logic for such things as maintenance time. Processors available ( CPU ) , and modern, and the graphics processor ( GPU ) Dadri unit of calculation and logic a powerful and yet complex. May each piece has more than a single calculation and logic. John von Neumann proved that a mathematician the concept of the ALU in 1945, when are writing a report for a new computer called EDVAC. posed....
SMT
What is SMT ?
Simultaneous MultiThreading
simultaneous (SMT) is a method for increasing the efficiency of the overall processor, that more than one instructions at the same time, implement (which (superscalar) are famous), along with " hardware". The technology to silent, independent Allow of the resources in the design of the processors in the disposal of them is placed, the better....
NUMA
What is NUMA ?
Non-Uniform Memory Access
Memory access or (NUMA) design of memory a computer can be that in , where access time to memory, to the location of placement relative to processor related. can be used. Under , A processor can Memory your local faster than memory (working memory Local A CPU, other memory or shared between the processor was). The benefits of unique several volume of something special, such as servers, is given its normally tightly to tasks or is dependent.

architecture, to be logically derived from the architecture of multi-processing symmetric (SMS). It commercially in the 1990s, by Bruch (later ), the Canucks computer (later Hewlett-Packard) information systems Hany Vale, Italy (later of the group of the bull), the silicone (later Silicon international), etc. computer systems (later IBM), Data General (later penetration, all Si), the Digital (later Compaq, now HP) were created. Techniques developed by these companies later on several platforms, pseudo and finally, in Windows one or use.

the first implementation of commercial systems basis, Unix, etc. of the family of the servers in a multi-processing symmetric XP-100, which was by Don for the company West information systems Hany Vale, Italy, were created....
PRAM
What is PRAM ?
Parallel Random-Access machine
Machine, random access, parallel (PRAM), a machine, an abstract, a memory shared, is that by the designers of the algorithm for evaluating the performance or complexity of the algorithm used. PRAM topics such as synchronization and communication ignores, but to any number of processors (dependent on the volume of issue) at the disposal puts. The complexity of the algorithm, for example, by (time x number of processors)O can be calculated....
OpenCL
What is OpenCL ?
Open Computing Language
Open si el (OpenCL) admission is for applications that is positioned on the rigs, heterogeneous, relying on CPUs and JP and other processors are run. Open si el, a language (based on C99) for writing kernel (the functions in the device, OpenCL are implemented), plus programming interfaces to define and then control the substrate may be used having. OpenCL with the use of the methods of task-centered (task-based) and data-driven (data-based) support.

open si el by both companies AMD/ATI and Nvidia have been accepted. In the design of the open kitchen, si el, a lot of the interface, processing with CUDA and challenger. Microsoft direct comp is shared....
CUDA
What is CUDA ?
Compute Unified Device Architecture
K'veda Ch (CUDA) is a platform for parallel processing and the programming model is that by now, Nvidia is in units of the graphics processing, the company is supported.K'veda CH to the developer Gan software allows a GPU that features CUDA-enabled IS for the purpose of processing. an approach that GPGPU known. K'veda CH to the developer Gan possibility of direct access to memory and set of instructions in a graphics processing unit.

platform kueda to work with programming languages like C, C and Fortran, is designed.This access makes for specialists to use the resources of the GPU easier to be contrary to the way of working, another API because DIRECT3D and OpenGL, which requires the ability to professional in graphics programming.Such kovda of the framework such as OpenACC and OpenCL support.

kueda by the library, equipped with a perm, etc. compiler, such as OpenACC and, likewise, the development of the industry standard of the languages included C, C and Fortran developers is accessible.Programmers C /C of the \' CUDA C/C\' s they use that compiled with the \"NDTV Good Times\".NDTV Good Times is a compiler C /C based on LLVM, the company Nvidia is.Programmers Fortran can also be \'CUDA Fortran\' and to use that compiled with the PGI CUDA Fortran Complier company The Portland Group. In addition to the library. , the compiler and the CUDA C/C ++ and CUDA Fortran, etc. Soko K'veda CH from other interfaces, computational includes support.

OpenCL group Khronos
DirectCompute, Microsoft
shadow calculations, OpenGL
C-AMP
Also, the wrappers of the third-person (Third party wrappers for languages like Perl (the Perl), but Python (Python), the AR (R) and. Fortran (FORTRAN), etc., Java (Java) in. Ruby (Ruby), the Haskell (Haskell), a Matlab (Matlab), for iPhone LCD (IDL), etc. (Lua) And also by default (Mathematica) are available.

In Industry, computer games, etc. GPU only for graphics rendering but also in physical calculations (physical effects like smoke, fire, discharge, and debris) are also.Example, such as PhysX and bullet include this case.K'veda CH as well as for applications, the acceleration rate in computational biology, etc. encryption and other spheres are also used.

Perm a API low level, and an API provides high-level.SDK basic Perm on 15 February 2007 for Windows, Micro Soft and Linux to public release.Support in Mac OS, in the second version was added, which replace the version of the test, on February 14, 2008.Kueda with all GPU of the series, G8x to the next includes a force majeure, etc. and Tesla(graphic) works.Kueda with most operating systems, standard works.Nvidia says the programs that for the series, G8x have been developed also without change on future generations of graphics cards, depending on the compatibility of binary .

kueda several excellence in calculations, the traditional on the GPU (in the total order GPGPU) that of graphical interfaces..

reading sparse, i.e., the code can address arbitrary memory read.
virtual memory integrated (kovda version 4.0 onwards)
the integrated memory (kovda version 6.0 onwards)
shared memory perm area is a memory shared. the show, which can be among the yarns to be shared. This memory can be used as a cache managed under the user access and bandwidth, the more we have the ability to make use of the search tissue.
download faster and re-reading (reread)
full support for integers and the operations of the bit, including the search for tissue correct...
HP-UX
What is HP-UX ?
Hewlett-Packard UniX
PHP- (HP-UX) is an operating system is a patented by company Hewlett-Packard Development finds. This system based operating systems, five Unix and is including four operating systems is exclusively that of the open Group certified compatibility with standard UNIX 03 is received, and legally can be a "Unix" to be called. The first version of this operating system was published in 1984 and its development continues. The most recent version of this operating system of the series Computer Systems HP 9000 that are based on the architecture, PA-RISC, as well as from systems HP Integrity which is based on the architecture company, Intel, are supported. HP-UX, the first operating system has been that of Access Control Lists to control access to files and directories change permissions of the traditional Unix support. Also, operating systems and pseudo-, etc. HP-UX, the first operating system which was a logical volume manager built-in. HP partner long-term with the software was and file system VxFS as the file system of the original in the HP-UX included....
AIX
What is AIX ?
Advanced Interactive eXecutive
IBM, iPhone, X (IBM AIX) category name of the operating system, is exclusively by IBM for several architecture, various hardware has been developed and sold. This operating system, which is initially for the workstation, the IBM 6150 was released. now from a wide range of platforms, hardware, such as the series RS/6000, systems-based thirty, and POWER, architecture, IBM System i, Maine, frame, System/370, etc., personal computers, the PS/2 and Apple Network Server support. AIX-based systems, five Unix and additions with 4.3 BSD compatible. This operating system is one of four trading platforms, which is now the open Group certified compatibility with standard UNIX 03 have received (other platforms include Mac OS ten, Solaris and PHP-). The first version of the operating system of AIX in the year 1986, was published and when in the year 1990, architecture, RS/6000, was introduced., the AIX operating system, the standard of the architecture, conversion, return, and still are, actively, by the company IBM Developer finds....
OpenMP
What is OpenMP ?
Open Multi-Processing
Open the (OpenMP) is a programming interface is that of the programming, the greater Sunda Islands, and with memory shared in the language, si, CDs, and Fortran on most architecture, processor, and diverse platforms such as Linux, etc. Windows, Mac OS, etc., Solaris, etc., AIX, and HP-UX support....
MPI
What is MPI ?
Message Passing Interface
Interface, send a message or MPI, a standard system of sending messages by which a group of academic researchers and industrial design. This interface on a wide range of computers, parallel implementation.

The Standard MPI the structure and application of a few procedural Constitution defines that to make the program parallel to that of the Send Message are used, it can be used. This procedure for a large number of users are not to be used and in addition it is the nature of the standard this procedure makes the software written with these procedures, the library, portability, high on the platforms have different.

implements several of the MPI is that, many of which are thoroughly tested and are sure. Many of which are free and even some without restrictions and agreements are not to be used. Implementation of MPI for different languages, including Fortran language, C, C, Java, etc. is available. Two implementations known to include Open MPI and MPICH.

library standard, such as MPI and PVM industry, the development of software for parallel to the boom has been building software for parallel and scalable it possible to have made....
MPMD
What is MPMD ?
Multiple Programs, Multiple Data
Multi-program multi-data (MPMD) in the science cloud is one of the techniques is to achieve computing parallel it used to be. This method, set method, several ordered multiple data (MIMD). In this method, split and in parallel on several processors with the input of parallel to achieve a faster result Run can be.

...
SPMD
What is SPMD ?
Single Program, Multiple Data
A program multiple data (SPMD) in the science cloud is one of the techniques is to achieve computing parallel it used to be. This method, set method, several ordered multiple data (MIMD). In this method, split and in parallel on several processors with the input of parallel to achieve a faster result Run can be. Techniques SPMD the most commonly used method in parallel processing. This method is also the prerequisite concepts of research, such as messages, active memory and distributed shared.

techniques SPMD usually to method transfer messages the program in a computer architecture using memory distributed are applied, a computer architecture distributed from a number of independent computer composed that each one of them, node (Node) call. Each node program begins and through send and receive messages with other nodes to communicate. With the use of calling, send/receive. The possibility of implementation commands, such as the impossibility of sync (Barrier Synchronization), and also with messages there. This message, with methods of data transfer such as TCP/IP on Ethernet or proprietary methods very high speed such as Myrinet and domestic connections supercomputer implementation of. Section Serial program through the calculation of pointers is quite similar in all the nodes is implemented, and virtually of the methods such as calculating the result in one node and send the result to the other nodes don't use.

in a machine with memory shared etc. can be applied to a message, re-submit its contents in an address space shared access. This method is usually the most optimal procedures in the planning computers with address space shared and the number of processors is high. Especially in the car, NUMA is that memory belongs to any processor has access to memory of other processor needs more time. Techniques SPMD machines, the memory shared, usually by the process of Standard very heavy implement.

unlike SPMD, etc. with memory shared to which multi-processor parallel (SMP) is also applicable. to the programmer the possibility of using a memory space shared gives, in which process, in parallel on different processors, and separate routes run can be. Program in a processor starts and its implementation to the regions split can be that at the time of the start of the parallel instructions are implemented. In the areas of parallel and ... processor, a program with a different data run. An example. Loop Do .... Loop. in which different processors are busy implementing the different parts of the array within the loop are responsible for. At the end of the loop, the results of the sync are at this time only one processor is busy and other processors are in waiting mode. Interface the current standard for with shared memory OpenMP is called, and usually using a process of non- to the name of the yarn (threads) implementation.

computers, the current possibility of combining many rules and modes parallel to achieve the maximum amount of productivity to the programmer. A program distributed memory that MPI uses can be on a very large number of nodes run. each node can be a computer with memory shared and to be parallel in several processors by the OpenMP run. Within each processor, etc. recipes vector SIMD (usually automatically by the compiler are run) and instructions Superscalar (usually by the CPU for an independent run can be) such as Pipelining and the use of several units operating separate parallel to achieve maximum speed in each processor are used.

techniques SPMD first in 1983 by Michel Auguin and Francois Larbey in computer parallel OPSILA used and then in 1984 by Bride Darema at IBM for the machine, above parallel, such as RP3 was used. Based on one of the documentation, non-published IBM in the 1980's from non-standard lot for the transfer of the messages is remembered, but first, the standard SPMD, PVM has been. The dominant standard today, MPI.

the technique of parallelization of Cray the previous generation, OpenMP can be....
MISD
What is MISD ?
Multiple Instruction, Single Data
In the cloud the iPhone, SD (MISD) means the recipe ., the law of the data, the only sort of cloud, parallel architecture computers is that most of the units operational, Operations, different, and, on a given do. The architecture of a pipeline to this type of assign. however, may be say that the data after the processing in each stage of the pipeline is different. Computers are fallible, that the instructions are to run continuously, and they can errors are discovered and determined. in behavioral therapy, to name, repeat, etc. may be included in this account type.

for this architecture example is a lot like a few recipes, a few or a few orders given, that the usual techniques in the cloud are parallel, etc. does not exist. In particular, the navigation and computational resources better than the iPhone, the SD would accept. However, an outstanding example of the cloud-share your SD computer, control the flight of the space shuttle.

Also, an array systolic, the archetype of The your SD. Linda null and Julia , etc. array, systolic as SMS, that, account have....
SIMD
What is SIMD ?
Single Instruction, Multiple Data
In computing a command multiple data (SIMD) means the command only, the field data of multiple class of cloud parallel in the classification of Flynn. This ... computers with multiple elements, the processing described, it is clear that an operation simultaneously on multiple data doing. Thus, such devices of the data-level parallel efficiency.
\"a mandate several data\" in general, a typical used, such as adjusting the contrast of digital images, or adjust the intensity of the sound digitally. More design-Mississippi , modern, includes instructions, \"a recipe several data\" are so that they can run use multimedia to improve....
SISD
What is SISD ?
Single Instruction, Single Data
In computing a command is a data (SISD) means the command only, the field data only is a term in architecture computer in which a CPU, a stream command runs, the data in a storage memory. This architecture, like the architecture of von Neumann.
a recipe of a given one of the four classification Flynn. This classification system is based on a flow of command and data available in Computer Architecture is provided. Based on Michael a. Flynn and ... SMS, iPhone SMS, can features processing simultaneously. Attract orders and the pipeline, they are examples of the banal that is on your computer, SMS iPhone SMS, modern found....
MIMD
What is MIMD ?
Multiple Instruction, Multiple Data
In computing, multi-recipe, multi-data (MIMD) means the recipe multiple time. the field data of multiple class of cloud parallel in the classification of Flynn. Devices that from the \"multi-program multi-data\". several processor are ordered to the same time and independently doing. At any time, processor, different can click on the different pieces of the given operation, several do. Architecture, \"a few recipes, several data\" can be in several domains of work, because the design of the computer/build to help your computer. computer simulation and ... modeling, and the key to communication.

memory \", a few recipes, several data\" can be in the order of shared memory or memory distributed repositioned. The rankings are based on how to access the processor, \"a few recipes, several data\" on the memory is carried out. System, shared memory may be of a network type bass, extendable with an order. System memory is distributed can also be part of the network grid or cube....
GLBP
What is GLBP ?
Gateway Load Balancing Protocol
GLBP like (Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP and (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP traffic data against the disorder of the router or circuit, etc. protection) and let the share Packet between a group of routers Redundant.
before you do the settings GLBP, you must routers the desired direction of the applied settings examine up from a few MAC address on the Interface physical support. Note that in order to do the settings each GLBP Forwarder from a MAC address using the individual.

features GLBP
one of the features of GLBP is that for those file that have a Default Gateway on a network IEEE 802.3 configuration. router auto-backup, etc. to create. Multi-Hop, the first of the routers, etc. on the LAN are combined, a router, an IP hop, the first virtual formed and the time Forwarding the IP packet to share the truth. Other routers on the LAN might as routers Redundant for GLBP Act, and when each of the Forwarding Router available from the work of destruction. " active return.
performance GLBP for the user, similar to HSRP and VRRP. but the difference is that in the process of running with them. Protocol, HSRP, and VRRP to the multi-router, allow in the group Virtual Router, with an IP virtual configuration. company) and then one of the members as the Active Router, will be selected to Packet sent to the IP address of the virtual for the group submit a result in other routers group, until the router active, system routers Redundant are considered. Standby Router bandwidth of that protocol don't use it. Although multi-group Virtual Router can be used for a group of routers configuration. host must be for Gateway default types are configured in a way that result in more volume, management. GLBP uses a Virtual IP and multiple MAC virtual to dampen the load on a few routers (Gateway) pays. Any host with the same Virtual IP can be configured, and all routers group the Virtual Router, send out Packet participation. Members of the GLBP with the message, Hello that every 3 seconds for Multicast, to address 224,0,0,102, etc. protocol, UDP port 3222 (source and destination) is sent, communicate....
MANET
What is MANET ?
Mobile Ad hoc Network
An ad hoc Network animated (MANET) is a network without infrastructure, self configuration of the machine is animated that for wireless to connect. The term ad hoc is a Latin word, and the word that means IT \"application case\".

each device in a MANET to move in any direction, independence and complete freedom. that is why a lot of times, the connection between each device movable with the other of the devices frequently change. Also, each of which have traffic non-related to your forward transmit (forwarding), etc., so built also. The main challenge in building a MANET is that each device, any time, be equipped, which are alternately on. the information required to route traffic properly maintained. This is such a network (MANET) also may be with their work and may be connected to the internet.

MANET a type of ad hoc networks Wireless Ad hoc Network) that are usually on top of Link Layer ad hoc network, a perimeter network, reliable routing.

from the mid-1990s, with the increased use of laptops and wireless network Tripple penetration 802. the 11, the structure MANET to a Title, Research Commons-friendly have become. Most of the article, scientific topics, evaluate protocols and abilities they have, etc. varying degrees of mobility. within a limited space, and put, and also usually, the distance of all nodes. multi-hop of each other on campus. Then, different protocols, etc. are usually based on different values of the rate of drop packets (packet drop rate), the overhead added by the Protocol, routing, etc. delay end to end of the pack, productivity, networking, and ... evaluation....
CTS
What is CTS ?
Clear To Send
The sender or the license posted in a computer network...
RTS
What is RTS ?
Ready To Send
The exchange, or demand to send in a computer network...